Your foot callus keeps coming back because the cause of it is still there.
Calluses on the feet are generally caused by too much pressure. It is reasonably easy to remove a callus, but they almost always come back. They do not come back because they have “roots” or the podiatrist debriding it did a poor job; they come back because that excessive pressure that caused them is still there. If the cause is not removed, then that callus is going to keep on being a problem.
There can be many reasons for that excessive pressure. It could be the fitting of your shoes, a bunion, a hammer toe, a ‘dropped’ metatarsal, biomechanical problems, the shape and structure of your feet, etc. If you really want to stop a foot callus from returning, you need to work with a podiatrist to identify what is causing it and then coming up with options to reduce that higher pressure.