No, not directly, but it may indirectly. A deficiency of vitamin D is not a direct cause of foot pain, but there are a large number of different conditions that do cause foot pain that a deficiency in vitamin D increases the risk for. This can range from bone stress injuries to osteoarthritis. Research has also shown that a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for diabetic foot ulcers and increases the risk for growing pains in children.
Taking Vitamin D is not going to fix foot pain issues, but it will reduce the risk of developing one of the conditions that can cause foot pain if you have a deficiency of the vitamin. Taking extra Vitamin D when you do not need it will lead to the body to just excrete the excessive intake, so overdoing it does no extra good.
A whole episode of PodChatLive with Farrah Jawad was devoted to the topic of Vitamin D and the foot: